Start studying Lesson 3: South America's Political Landscape. Whereas the ITCZ has a global extent, South America is subject to its own unique climate patterns. The largest country in South America is Brazil, followed by Argentina, Peru and Colombia. The location of the ITCZ is centred on the areas of highest insolation, although it is more stationary over the oceans than landmasses. 474 565 67. Grodsky, S. A. and J. Oliver, J. E. (2005). The Andean Plateau is the world’s largest plateau outside of Tibet. 122 207 47. Argentina is the world’s 8th biggest, and is the largest Spanish-speaking country. The most populous country is the United States (2010 census). The southernmost Andes hosts the South Patagonian Ice Field are lower and narrower. Brazil contains most of the Amazon River basin, which has the world’s largest river system and the world’s most-extensive virgin rainforest. Some studies advance ideas that describe one or more atmospheric cells over the equator, while others state that the position of the ITCZ depends on Ekman pumping efficiency and moisture availability. Along with the islands of Tierra del Fuego, the continent includes the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador), Easter Island (Chile), the Falkland Islands (United Kingdom), and the Chiloé and Juan Fernández archipelagos (Chile). Moisture Pattern During the Last Glacial Maximum in South America. Landscape Mountains. Map of South America.  The southward moisture flux east of the Andes also increases, bringing humidity to central and southeast Brazil. "The Life Cycle of the South American Monsoon System". South America became attached to North America only recently (geologically speaking) with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama some 3 million years ago, which resulted in the Great American Interchange. The continent also contains drier regions such as eastern Patagonia and the extremely arid Atacama desert. Robertson, A. W. and C. R. Mechoso (2000). The smallest country in South America is Suriname, followed by Uruguay, and Guyana. A. Carton (2003). Jungle Realistic Vector Landscape - Buy this stock vector and explore similar vectors at Adobe Stock South of about Santa Catarina, the highlands fade out to low plains in Uruguay. Annales Geophysicae 27(2): 645–657. Each time you correctly select a South American country on the map you will get 5 points.  No comprehensive theory for ITCZ formation and spatial variation has been validated, although several hypotheses have been proposed. São Paulo, Brazil, is the most populated city in South America, with a population of 12 million. 59 51 17. A., B. Liebmann, et al. In the north, the Gulf of Panama is connected to the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean by the Panama Canal. The combination of colonization and geography also explains why the continent has no clear regional leader. Over the last several centuries, vast forest areas have beencleared as agriculture has spread and human populationshave grown. Hand Keep Globe Earth. Journal of Climate 16(4): 723–733.  It has also been suggested that is the subsidence over the cool SSTs of the eastern Pacific and extensive stratocumulus decks provide a radiative heat sink to the tropical atmosphere that can balance the adiabatic warming due to the monsoonal descent. Important mountainous areas are the Brazilian Highlands, the Guiana Highlands, the Serra Dois Irmaos and the Serra Grande. This change in flow direction is evident in changes to terrestrial windfields over extreme southwestern Amazonia, with winds changing from northerlies to northwesterlies, and over eastern Brazil, where the winds turn from easterlies to northeasterlies. "Recent developments on the South American monsoon system". The largest country in South America by far, in both area and population, is Brazil.  The vertical convection draws in air from the surrounding atmosphere, known as the trade winds. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. "Subtropical anticyclones and summer monsoons", Journal of Climate 14(15): 3192–3211. "Interannual and interdecadal variability of the South Atlantic convergence zone". Brazil is often regarded as the emerging leader for South America. Map of South America #2. Peru is known for its diverse landscapes … "The intertropical convergence zone in the South Atlantic and the equatorial cold tongue". Raia, A. and I. F. A. Cavalcanti (2008). The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. UTC -2 is only used in the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It occupies almost 50% of landmass of … The above outline map represents Brazil, the largest country in South America. Identifying Uruguay, Suriname, and Guyana may be a little tougher to find on an online map. Regional Maps: Map of South America. The other major river of this central lowland is the Orinoco River, which has a natural channel linking it with the Amazon. "Present-day South American climate". The Altiplano contains many rare minerals such as copper, tin, mercury ore. The eastern highlands are areas of Earth's crust that are much older than the Andes, being pre-Cambrian in origin, but are still rugged in places, especially in the wet tepuis of Venezuela, Guyana and Roraima. A map showing the major bodies of water surrounding South America. South America is dominated by two major landforms. The South Atlantic High moves eastward, reflecting the pressure reduction over the continent and the intensity and direction of the zonal flow over the nearby tropics and sub-tropics. Macaw parrot sits on the liana. Also Sorry Peru for the Srta. F. Vimeux, F. Sylvestre and M. Khodri. The range covers about 8,850 kilometers (5,500 miles). The natural vegetation of the northern lowlands are either savanna in the northern Llanos and southern campos, or tropical rainforest throughout most of the Amazon basin. Restoration is possible.Most countries have suffered forestloss and degradation and have opportunities for restoration.Vast deforested areas in Europe and North Americah… Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The very fertile soils from the erosion of the Andes formed the basis for the continent's only pre-Columbian state civilizations: those of the Inca Empire and its predecessors (Chavín, Nazca, Mochica, etc.). Coloring Map of North America Color in this map to learn the countries of North America. A map showing the physical features of South America. Interhemispheric Climate Linkages. Like all other areas within the Ring of Fire, South America is prone to volcanic activity and strong earthquakes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 52(8): 778. A map showing the physical features of South America. "Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according to the ENSO variability". Hope you enjoy. East of the Andes in Argentina, there are a number of rugged, generally arid to semi-arid isolated mountain chains called Sierras Pampeanas, the highest of which is the Sierra de Córdoba near the city of the same name. That’s mostly due to its massive size in terms of land, population, natural resources, and economy. South America is home to two of the largest countries in the world. The above blank map represents Brazil, the largest country in South America. During April and May, the low-level southward flow of moisture from the western Amazonia weakens, as more frequent incursions of drier and cooler air from the mid-latitudes begin to occur over the interior of subtropical South America. Venezuela has its own time zone that is half an hour off from the rest of the continent, called UTC -4.30. There are a number of large glaciers in the northern part, but from latitude 19°S to 28°S the climate is so arid that no permanent ice can form even on the highest peaks. During the rainy season, a layer of water covers its surface and creates a mirror effect, making it hard to tell where the land ends and the sky begins. These contain three of the world's highest capitals: Bogotá, Quito and highest of all, La Paz, Bolivia. International Journal of Climatology: n/a–n/a. It is divided politically into 12 independent countries— Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela —and the overseas department of French Guiana . Silva, G. A. M., T. Ambrizzi, et al. The continent’s borders were determined through reasons of culture, geography, logistics, and history. The above map can be downloaded, printed and used for geography educational purposes like map-pointing and coloring activities. The most mountainous area is on the western side of the continent. The Amazon River has has a LOT of water. We hope you have fun learning the countries of South America with this geography game. The above outline map represents Peru, a country located in Western South America. As part of the Hadley model of atmospheric circulation, the equator is characterised by the ascending branches of separate meridional cells, driven by intense insolation. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, "Inventario y clasificación de manifestaciones basálticas de Patagonia mediante imágenes satelitales y SIG, Provincia de Santa Cruz", Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, CIA - The World Factbook - Falkland Islands, BBC NEWS | Americas | Country profiles | Regions and territories: French Guiana, Insee - Population - Population des régions au 1er janvier, CIA - The World Factbook - South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Forum for the Progress and Development of South America (FPDSA), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_South_America&oldid=993501660, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 23:10. Further south, the main land use is coffee, while São Paulo is the economic heart of the continent with its industry. East of the Andes is a large lowland drained by a small number of rivers, including the two largest in the world by drainage area—the Amazon River and the more southerly Paraná River. The geographical structure of South America is deceptively simple for a continent-sized landmass. Permafrost, however, is widespread in this section of the Altiplano and continuous above 5,600 metres (18,373 ft). The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea — Colombia and Venezuela —are also known as Caribbean South America. Paegle, J. N. and K. C. Mo (2002). Blue Morpho Butterfly. Colorful Color Brush. Regions in South America include the Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. 3D Model World Earth. South America borders the South Pacific Ocean, the South Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea. Situated on the far western edge of the continent, the Andes stretch from the southern tip to the northernmost coast of South America. The Andes are a Cenozoic mountain range formed (and still forming) Altiplano and a number of major valleys such as the Rio Magdalena. South America is also home to the Atacama Desert, the driest desert in the world. A map showing the capital cities of South America. These winds, however, lose their humidity (through cooling and condensation) as they blow over the west coast of South America and over the Andes, and they are dry when they reach Patagonia. 155 133 27.  The SAMS framework comprises several distinct subcomponents, which are discussed below: The development of the SAMS during spring is characterised by a rapid southward shift of the convective region from northwestern South America to the highland region of the central Andes and to the southern Amazon basin. which have been organised into the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). Sloths of South America have short flat heads, short snouts, and tiny ears. The longest land border in South America is shared by Chile and Argentina. Outline Map of Peru. Geo Map - South America - Haiti "A destination spa is a short term residential/ lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spa-goers to develop healthy habits. The map above reveals the physical landscape of the South American Continent. In the Atlantic region, the ITCZ is clearly developed, and the spatial extent of the ITCZ reaches a minimum close to the equator during the boreal spring (March–May), while extending to a maximum of 10°–15°N in late boreal summer (August). Vintage Map America. This asymmetry is evident in the northward bias of the ITCZ's location, which is maintained by a positive feedback between wind speed, evaporation and SST.. In the north of this region is the arid sertão, a poor region consistently affected by extremely erratic rainfall, and the humid zona da mata, once home of the unique Atlantic Rainforest with many species not found in the Amazon, and now a centre for sugarcane. Situated in the southern hemisphere, South America is the fourth largest continent in the world encompassing 15 countries with most of the population speaking Spanish and Portuguese along with many different indigenous dialects. South America, the fourth-largest continent, extends from the Gulf of Darién in the northwest to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in the south. Laura thing. Paraguay and Bolivia are South America’s only landlocked countries. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 25: 979–983. Butterfly Exotic. South America - South America - Cultural life: The rapid expansion of communications technology has brought the social, economic, and political happenings of urban life to formerly isolated rural communities and in the process has created a transnational South American culture. Sylvestre, F. (2009). Bordered by mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, the legendary landscape of Patagonia displays huge forests, sizeable mountains, valleys, and many cold-water lakes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87(1): 63. Marengo, J. The above blank map represents Peru - a country located in Western South America. A map showing the countries of South America. However, one point will be deducted for each incorrect guess. The Andes mountain range dominates South America’s landscape. About 30 percent of global forest cover hasbeen completely cleared and a further 20 percent has beendegraded.  Most of this central lowland is sparsely populated because the soils are heavily leached, but in the south is the very fertile pampas of Argentina—one of the world's major food-producing regions where wheat and beef cattle are pre-eminent.  The diabatic heating released in the SAMS region seems to promote that gyre, and the maintenance of the South Atlantic subtropical high during austral summer. The southernmost capital city is Stanley in the Falkland Islands. The area is still a major agricultural region. Outline Map of Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281(3-4): 180–195. Brazil covers more than half of South America’s landmass, and is the largest country in the Southern Hemisphere and the 5th largest in the world. Xie, S. P. and Y. Tanimoto (1998). The South American continent also includes various islands, most of which belong to countries on the continent. 211 184 32.  Whichever hypothesis best represents the natural system, it is clear that the dynamics of the ITCZ are influenced by several other external climate systems. The vertical convection also results in a net export of heat and freshwater from the lower atmosphere into the troposphere This system is known as the ITCZ. South America: free maps, free outline maps, free blank maps, free base maps, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF The Caribbean territories are grouped with North America. The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. They include UTC -5, which is observed in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, UTC -4, which covers Guyana, Bolivia, Paraguay, and parts of Brazil, and UTC -3, which is used in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Suriname, French Guiana, and eastern Brazil. "The South American low-level jet experiment". The above map can be downloaded, printed and used for geography education purposes like map-pointing and coloring activities. Garreaud, R. D., M. Vuille, et al. Physical Map of South America. Efforts to develop agriculture, outside of fertile floodplains of rivers descending from the Andes, have been largely failures because of the soils. It is the fifth largest and fifth most-populous country in the world. A map showing the delineation of countries in South America. Patagonia is influenced by the South Pacific westerly air current, which brings humid winds from the ocean to the continent. "Dynamical theory of formation of cloud bands in tropical oceans". A map showing the four time zones that are observed in South America. (2006). 265 220 53. Lake Titicaca, between Bolivia and Peru, is the largest lake in South America. 77 54 27. See if you can beat your friend's high score. I had to. The diversity of South America’s landscapes is perhaps the greatest of any continent. Vera, C., J. Baez, et al. Southwest Bolivia’s Salar de Uyuni, which at just over 4,000 square miles in size is the world’s largest salt flat, is one of South America’s most surreally beautiful landscapes. The continent's topography is often likened to a huge bowl owing to its flat interior almost ringed by high mountains.
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